You have probably heard the term Aromatherapy and wondered what exactly that funny word, “aromatherapy” actually means. It is the use of plant oils in there most essential form to promote both mental and physical well being. The use of the word aroma implies the process of inhaling the scents from these oils into your lungs for therapeutic benefit.
If you have ever used a vapor rub for a cough then you have tried aromatherapy, although not in its purest form. As a matter of fact, you probably have been using aromatherapy on yourself and your family for many years without realizing it through vapor rubs or electric vaporizers.
Vicks or other brands of vapor rub use eucalyptus or menthol to clear out stuffy chests and noses. Imagine if you used the undiluted essential oil of eucalyptus how clear your lungs would feel.
The term aromatherapy is generally new, beginning to be used in the 20th century, but the practice has been around for thousands of years. It is believed that the Chinese were one of the first cultures to use the scents of plants to promote health through the burning of incense. Ancient Egyptians used distilled cedarwood oil mixed with clove, cinnamon, nutmeg, and myrrh to embalm the deceased. The Egyptians also used oils to perfume both men and women.
In the 14th century when the bubonic plague hit, killing thousands of people, aromas were used to ward off the deadly disease. There is even discussion that the popular nursery rhyme, “Ring Around the Roses” refers to aromatherapy. The lines, “a pocket full of posies” allegedly refers to keeping the flower in ones pocket in an attempt to keep the illness away.
Moving forward through later centuries a growth in books about the use of oils in healing grew.
The Greek alchemist, Paracelcus, used the term “essence” and focused study on the use of plants for healing purposes.
While the use of essential oils for perfume continued to grow throughout the ages its‟ use for medicinal purposes waned slightly until around 1928.
It was at that time that a French chemist named Rene-Maurice Gattefosse accidentally discovered the use of lavender essential oil to heal wounds.
The story is told that he burned his forearm and reflexively placed it in the closest liquid he saw, which was lavender essential oil. He was surprised to find that the burn healed rapidly and left no scar. It was then that he began using the term aromatherapy and wrote about the powers of essential oils.
Today, many people are trying to get back to nature. People have seen first hand the dangerous effects of synthetic chemicals and processed medications.
The use of all natural essential oils for medicinal, cosmetic, and therapy purposes continues to grow. Many people have found the results of using aromatherapy to be far greater then man made medications and with far fewer negative side effects.
Aromatherapy can be used by itself or in conjunction with typical medical treatments. For example, you may use aromatherapy to ease pain after a surgical procedure. You still get the benefit of the surgery but do not have to take the powerful and often dangerous pain medications that a doctor prescribes.
Quality and Safety Control
Essential oils that are used in aromatherapy are not always easy to find. The Food and Drug Administration does not regulate essential oils so you, the consumer, will have to carefully read the ingredients of any oil you purchase to make sure that it is in its purest form.
In order to get the most benefit from aromatherapy, oils in their purest form should be used.
Finding the Best Essential Oils
Try to avoid synthetic oils. Essential oils are the only way to get therapeutic benefit from aromatherapy. They will not be cheap nor should many different kinds of oils be priced the same as the process of distilling them is varied.
Light exposure decreases the ability of an essential oil to work, so only buy oils that are sold in dark bottles.
The term “oil” is often a misnomer as many of them are not at all oily. To test how distilled an oil is try dropping it on a piece of paper to see if it dissolves quickly and does not leave an oil spot.
If you have a health store in your area shop there instead of a perfume store. It is more likely that they will have real essential oils for sale.
Safety when using Essential Oils
Essential oils are very powerful when they are not diluted. In order to make them safe you should dilute them with a carrier oil. Ask at your local health store which carrier oils they have available as there are many from which to choose.
Follow the instructions carefully when making any essential oil compound. If a recipe says one drop, use only one drop. Anyone who has a nut allergy should also avoid carrier oils derived from nuts.
Oils should be stored out of children‟s reach. If accidental ingestion occurs contact poison control immediately. Pregnant women should consult their physician before partaking in any kind of aromatherapy.
If you plan to use aromatherapy on infants or the elderly it is recommended that you use lesser amounts of oil in your recipe. Check with your physician to ensure that it is safe to use on a particular age group.
Some oils can be toxic if ingested even in small amounts. In general, unless specified for oral use, essential oils should not be ingested.
Essential oils stored in a cool dry place, and tightly capped will last six to twelve months. It is important to keep as little oxygen in contact with the oils as possible, so you will want to store them in full bottles, stepping down the bottle size as needed.
Essential oils should never be put on your skin in their undiluted form. They can irritate your skin quickly and cause a chain reaction that will make you sensitive to that oil for a lifetime.
Persons with asthma, epilepsy, or other serious health conditions should contact their physician before using aromatherapy.
To avoid an allergic reaction, place a small amount of diluted oil on a patch of your skin. Cover the spot with a band aid and wait a full day to see if irritation occurs. This can avoid a potentially large allergic reaction to essential oils. Essential oils should be kept away from open flame or fire hazards as they are all flammable. Never use any sort of oil near your eyes. Wash your hands thoroughly after handling essential oils to avoid contact with eyes or mouth.
Hazardous Essential Oils
Some essential oils are very dangerous. These oils should not be sold at all, but can still be purchased over the internet or at less reputable shops.
Others, may be safe in some instances but can be rather dangerous if used in certain circumstances. Before you take on an aromatherapy plan, take time to understand which oils are safe. Keep in mind that just because something is all natural does not necessarily mean that it is not hazardous to your health.
- Rosemary, common sage, hyssop, and thyme should never be used if you have high blood pressure.
- Sweet fennel, hyssop, sage, and rosemary should be avoided if you have epilepsy.
- Diabetics should not use angelica.
- Those who suffer from hypoglycemia should stay away from geranium
- Sufferers of kidney problems should be cautious if they use juniper, sandalwood, or coriander.
- Expectant mothers should especially avoid juniper, hyssop, clary sage, peppermint, lemon, fennel, lemon verbana, rosemary, and wintergreen.
- Clary sage should not be used while drinking as it will intensify the effects of the alcohol causing it to act like a narcotic.
- Chamomile and marjoram should not be used while driving because they cause drowsiness.
- Some oils can cause allergies, such as citronella, clary sage, ylang ylang, and verbana oils.
- Oils that are believed to be carcinogens are calamus and sassafras, should be avoided by everyone.
- Methyl salicyalte is the active ingredient in aspirin and sweet birch essential oil. If you use aspirin for medicinal purposes you should avoid it due to the risk of overdose. It should also be kept away from children as it smells sweet and is equally dangerous to them.
While the list above are oils that can be dangerous in certain situations there are other oils that should not be used in aromatherapy at all. These oils can be caustic if inhaled and should be avoided at all costs. This is not a comprehensive list, you should do research on any oil you plan to use before you purchase it.
Oils that Should Not be used in Aromatherapy
- Almond – Contains cyanide which even in small amounts can be lethal.
- Aniseed – Skin irritant.
- Arnica – Can cause dizziness and heart irregularities
- Bergamot – Phototoxic, severe sunburn could occur if it is exposed to sunlight.
- Boldo Leaf – Produces convulsions even in small quantities.
- Calamus – Has carcinogenic (cancer causing) properties and can cause kidney and liver damage.
- Camphor – Oral ingestion can be toxic.
- Cassia – Skin and mucus membrane irritant.
- Cinnamon Bark – Skin irritant.
- Costus – Skin irritant.
- Elecampane – Classified as a serious skin irritant.
- Fennel – Can cause epileptic episodes.
- Horseradish – Eye, skin, nose, and mucus membrane irritant.
- Jaborandi Leaf – Oral toxin, skin irritant.
- Mustard – Skin and mucus membrane irritant.
- Spanish Origanum – Skin and mucus membrane irritant
- Dwarf Pine – Skin irritant.
- Brazilian Sassafras – Banned by the FDA as a carcinogen and can be toxic even in small amounts.
- Savin – Skin irritant.
- Southernwood – Toxic to the skin and if taken orally.
- Tansy – Can cause convulsions, vomiting, uterine bleeding, and death as a result of organ or respiratory failure.
- Cedarleaf Thuja
- Thuja Plicata – Can be a neurotoxin.
- Wintergreen – Can be a skin irritant, especially to those with an aspirin sensitivity. The oil itself is poisonous.
- Wormseed – Toxic to the liver and kidneys, suppresses heart function.
- Wormwood – Consumption can cause visual and auditory hallucinations and addiction. It can also cause convulsions and be a neurotoxin.
There are some essential oils that are highly toxic and should never be used in any circumstance.
Essential Oils to Completely Avoid
Your Basic Care Kit
If you are just beginning your journey with essential oils and aromatherapy there are a few oils that will help you get started. These are some of the easiest to find yet versatile essential oils. Not only are they used for therapeutic purposes but can also be used in many other applications.
Some of these include making natural cleaning products and gardening. In addition to the oils you will need some way to get them into your lungs. An aroma diffuser is a good way to do this.
An aroma diffuser puts the essential oils into the air quickly and spreads them about the room which allows you to get your therapy by just relaxing and breathing deeply. They come in all different shapes and styles so you can purchase one that matches the décor in each room of your home.
Some run with the use of an open flame while others are powered by electricity. You can even get aromatherapy diffusers that work in your car.
Lavender is a non toxic and non irritant essential oil. It is extracted through steam distillation from flowering tops of the lavender plant. Lavender has long been a folk remedy used to calm an upset stomach. Lavender has both soothing and reviving properties.
Lavender oil should be clear to pale yellow in will smell sweet with floral and woody undertones. It blends well with other floral and citrus essential oils.
As aromatherapy it has a variety of health benefits. It‟s pleasant and calming scent makes it helpful in treating nerves and headaches, anxiety, depression, and emotional stress. It also increases mental stamina and calms exhaustion.
Lavender essential oil is often recommended to treat insomnia as its scent can induce sleep. Massage with lavender oil can remedy all types of soreness and pain even when it is deep in the joints.
The vapor form of lavender oil is used to treat all sorts of respiratory problems including, colds, flu, chest congestions, whooping cough, sinus congestion, and asthma. Lavender has been used to promote good blood circulation and stimulate the production for gastric fluids to treat stomach ailments.
Tea Tree essential oil is also a non toxic and non irritant but can cause sensitization in some people. This oil is extracted through steam distillation from the leaves and twigs of the Tea Tree.
Tea Tree has long been used by the aboriginal people in Australia and is named for their use of it as an herbal tea. The oil should be a pale-yellow green or water white color. Tea Tree blends well with lavender, clary sage, rosemary, and many spice oils.
Tea Tree oil is known for being anti bacterial, anti microbial, anti septic, and anti viral. In short, it can almost be called a cure-all because it has so many properties to ward off disease and germs. In Australia it is found in nearly every household because of these properties.
Tea tree oil can be used as an anti bacterial to cure all sorts of bacterial infections including the treatment of wounds. As aromatherapy it can be used to treat coughs, colds, congestion and bronchitis. It can also keep fungal infections at bay and even cure dermatitis and athlete‟s foot. Tea tree can be used as a stimulant to hormones and circulation and to boost ones immune system. Tea tree oil can help remove toxins by opening pores and promoting sweating which removes uric acid and excess salt and water from your body.
Peppermint essential oil is non toxic and when diluted is a not irritant. It can cause some skin irritation because of the menthol properties it holds and should be used with temperance.
The use of Peppermint has been seen as far back as Egyptian tombs from 1000 BC. It also has a history of use in China and Japan since the earliest times to treat all sorts of health anomalies.
Peppermint essential oil should be pale yellow or greenish in color. It has a strong grassy mint scent. Peppermint works well with other mint scents like eucalyptus as well as rosemary and lavender.
Peppermint has been studied in the science community and its health benefits proven. Because of this peppermint oil is available in pill form. It contains many minerals and nutrients like iron, magnesium, calcium, omega-3 fatty acids, and Vitamins A and C.
Peppermint is an excellent remedy for respiratory problems and is widely used as and expectorant to remove nasal and respiratory congestion. As an aromatherapy it can be used to treat nausea, headaches, depression, and stress. It has also been known to treat irritable bowel syndrome. As a skin care product peppermint oil can improve oily skin and replenish dull skin.
Chamomile is a non toxic and non irritant. It is extracted through steam distillation of the flowering chamomile plant. Chamomile has been used for over 2000 years in Europe for medicinal purposes. The oil should be a pale blue that will turn yellow as it ages. It will have a warm, fruity, sweet smell. Chamomile blends well with lavender and geranium as well as sage and jasmine.
Chamomile is well known for its calming properties. So much so that it can be used in aromatherapy to treat nervous disorders, headaches, and migraines. It is also used to calm allergies and asthma. Many women use it for the treatment of PMS or to relieve a teething or colicky baby.
Eucalyptus is relatively new to the aromatherapy family as it has only been used for the past few centuries. It is a non irritant but can be extremely toxic if ingested.
It is colorless as an essential oil but has a distinct pine like scent. The essential oil is from the leaves of the evergreen eucalyptus tree that is native to Australia.
As an aromatherapy it is used to treat respiratory problems like sinusitis, nasal congestion, sore throat, runny nose, coughs, colds, and bronchitis. It is able to treat all of these ailments because it is antibacterial, anti fungal, and a natural decongestant.
Eucalyptus also has a cool and refreshing scent which makes it great for treating exhaustion and mental disorders.
Eucalyptus can also be used around the house as a room freshener, in making natural soaps, in saunas for its antiseptic properties, and even as in mouth wash or toothpaste.
Geranium has many healing properties but can cause some sensitization and influence hormone secretions so it should not be used by expectant mothers. Geranium oil blends well with citronella, lavender, orange, lemon, and jasmine.
If used in aromatherapy Geranium oil is a great astringent. It promotes the tightening of muscles to keep skin from hanging loose.
It has anti bacterial and anti microbial properties to help stave off infections of many kinds.
The essential oil is also known to be a cytophylactic which means it encourages cell growth. It can also be used to treat many mental disorders like depression, anxiety, anger, and pre menstrual syndrome.
Although Rosemary is considered non toxic and non irritant when diluted it should be avoided by epileptics, expectant mothers, and those who have high blood pressure.
The flowering tops of the Rosemary plant go through a steam distillation process to form the essential oil. It should be a clear or pale yellow liquid with a strong herb-mint scent. Rosemary is one of the first plants that was used for both food and medicine. In the middle ages it was used to protect against the plague and to drive out evil spirits.
When used in aromatherapy Rosemary oil can help to boost mental stamina and increase brain activity. It can also treat depression, mental strain, and forgetfulness. When one inhales Rosemary they will immediately feel uplifted making it excellent for relief of fatigue. It can also clear your respiratory tract and relieve sore throats, colds, and coughs.
Around your home Rosemary can be used as an air freshener and bath oil.
Thyme essential oil is extracted by steam distillation from fresh or partially dry leaves and flowering tops of the Thyme plant. The oil should be red, brown or orange in color. It has a spicy and pungent odor. Thyme was one of the first plants used in Western herbal treatments mainly for respiratory and digestive health problems.
Thyme is anti bacterial, when used in its aromatic form it can prevent bacterial growth in and outside of your body. It is able to cure lung, larynx, and pharynx infections without effecting the rest of your organs like prescription cough medicines. Thyme is also know to boost memory and to treat depression.
Thyme essential oil is used as an insecticide both around the home and on your body. It can also help in treating bad breath and body odor.
Lemon essential oil is non toxic but, it may cause skin irritation so it should be used with restraint. Lemon oil is phototoxic so exposure to sunlight is strongly discouraged. In Spain Lemon is known as a cure all being used for everything from fever to arthritis.
The oil will be a pale green-yellow color that turns brown as it ages. It has a light citrus smell and blends well with fennel, lavender, sandalwood, and chamomile.
Lemon is very popular for cooking and for its fresh scent. As aromatherapy it can aid in the relief of stress, anxiety and fatigue.
The scent of lemon helps to increase concentration and alertness and bring an overall positive sense to those who inhale it. Lemon has also been used in treating coughs and colds and it the treatment of asthma.
The high amount of vitamins in Lemon oil make it an immune system booster. It can also improve circulation and stimulate white bloods cells further aiding ones ability to fight disease. Lemon has also been used as an aid in weight loss.
As a household cleaner lemon can be used on metal surfaces like knives to disinfect them. It can also be used in soaps and facial cleansers as it has antiseptic properties.
Clove oil should be used with extreme care. It can cause mucus membrane irritation and severe skin irritation. As such it should only be used sparingly and well diluted.
The buds, leaves, stems, and stalks of the clove plant are distilled with water to extract the essential oil. It should a pale yellow color with a spicy scent.
Clove mixes well with sage, allspice, lavender, and rose. Clove has been used all over the world for centuries. It can be used to season food as well
as for medicinal benefit. Clove contains many minerals including calcium, iron, potassium, and vitamins A and C.
Clove has many health benefits, namely in the form of dental care. It has germicidal properties that aid in relieving tooth aches, gum sores, and ulcers in the mouth. It can also help relieve a sore throat.
Clove is an aphrodisiac which makes it a great stress reliever when used as aromatherapy. It can also have a stimulating effect and help to ease fatigue. Clove can also be used to treat headaches, bronchitis, asthma, coughs, and colds. Expectant mothers can use clove to relieve the nausea and vomiting often experienced during pregnancy.
Clove cigarettes have long been a popular alternative to the traditional tobacco kind. At one time it was thought that adding clove could counteract the negative effects of smoking, this has since proved false. The American Cancer Society notes that there is no scientific proof that clove cures cancer in any way.
Essential Oil Properties
The properties of essential oils are what make them so beneficial. While most of them smell pleasant, that is just a by product of their real benefit. The term essential oil may sound simple, but they are actually complicated chemical compounds.
The ingredients in essential oils are organic because they consist of a molecule structure. This structure is made of carbon atoms and bound by hydrogen atoms.
In some essential oils there may also be oxygen, nitrogen, and sulphur atoms. By familiarizing yourself with the chemical make up of essential oils you can understand how they might benefit your health. In turn you will also be able to understand why some oils are hazardous.
Main Chemicals in Essential Oils
- Monoterpenes which have antiseptic and healing properties.
- Sesquiterpenes are anti inflammatory and anti infectious, they also have calming qualities.
- Phenols are a stimulant and best used in small quantities.
- Alcohols are antiseptic, antibacterial, antibiotic, and anti-fungal. They also stimulate ones immune system.
- Ethers are anti bacterial, anti spasmodic, and anti inflammatory.
- Ketones have relaxing and sedative properties. They are also an anti coagulant and can stimulate the immune system.
- Aldehydes can also be used as an anti inflammatory and to calm nerves.
- Coumarins are anti convulsant and anti coagulative. They can also be used as a sedative.
Recipes for Home
Remember that essential oils are very strong so follow each recipe with great care. Less is more when making essential oil treatments.
For Attentiveness – 1 drop Cypress, 2 drops Cedarwood, 2 drops Lemon, 1 drop Pine.
For Recharging – 2 drops Fennel, 3 drops Juniper, 3 drops Lemongrass.
For Alertness – 2 drops Eucalyptus, 3 drops Rosemary, 3 drops Tangerine.
For Motivation – 2 drops Basil, 4 drops Bergamot, 1 drop Clove, 2 drops Ginger.
For Lucidity – 2 drops Bay, 3 drops Ginger, 2 drops Rosemary.
For Calmness – 2 drops Chamomile, 3 drops Lavender, 2 drops Marjoram.
For Harmony – 2 drops Benzoin, 2 drops Rose, 3 drops Verbena.
For Peacefulness – 4 drops Bergamot, 2 drops Clary Sage, 3 drops Cypress.
For Soothing – 2 drops Frankincense, 3 drops Melissa, 2 drops Patchouli.
To Increase Socialization – 3 drops Litsea Cubeba, 3 drops Rosemary.
To Relax – 3 drops Lavender, 1 drop Sandalwood.
For the Kitchen – 1 drop basil, 3 drops Lemon, 2 drops Rosemary.
For the Bathroom – 1 drop Basil, 3 drops Lemon, 2 drops Rosemary.
For the Bedroom – 2 drops Bergamot, 3 drops Jasmine, 2 drops Ylang Ylang.
For the Office – 2 drops Caraway, 3 drops Frankincense, 2 drops Ginger.
Home Cleaner Recipes
Bathroom Air Freshener Spray
Fill a pump-spray bottle with 500ml of distilled water then add the following essential oils:
- 5 drops Cinnamon essential oil
- 5 drops Eucalyptus essential oil
- 5 drops Lemon essential oil
- 5 drops Sage essential oil
- 5 drops Thyme essential oil
- 10 drops Bergamot essential oil
- 10 drops Citronella essential oil
- 10 drops Lavender essential oil
- 10 drops Tea Tree essential oil
Shake this mixture well before each use. Spray every day to keep your bathroom smelling fresh and clean.
Lavender and Tea Tree Cleaner
- 1 t. borax
- 2 T. white vinegar
- 2 c. hot water
- 1/4 t. Lavender essential oil
- 3 drops Tea Tree essential oil
Mix all ingredients together and stir until dry ingredients dissolve. Pour into spray bottle for long-term storage and use. Spray as needed on any surface except glass. Scrub and rinse with a clean damp, cloth.
- 3 drops Cinnamon Leaf
- 5 drops Pine Needle
- 2 drops Frankincense
- 10 drops Bergamot
- 1/8 t. Sunshine Concentrate
- 30 ounces water
Combine essential oils with Sunshine Concentrate and water in a 32 oz. trigger spray bottle. Spray on and wipe surface dry. Disinfects countertops, stovetops and tile.
- 1/4 cup baking soda
- 1 teaspoon vinegar
- 6 drops lemon essential oil
Instructions: Mix ingredients to make a paste. Apply to interior of microwave with a sponge. Rinse and leave door open to dry for 15 minutes.
Wash the glass turntable by hand. This recipe will get rid of food odors.
- 1/4 cup white vinegar to a bucket of water
- 10 drops lemon oil
- 4 drops oregano oil
Basic Wood Cleaning Formula
- 1/4 cup white distilled vinegar
- 1/4 cup water
- 1/2 teaspoon liquid castile soap
- 5 drops jojoba or olive oil
Combine the ingredients in a bowl. Saturate a sponge and squeeze out the excess. Wash surfaces of tired and dirty wood. The vinegar smell will dissipate soon. Dry with a soft cloth.
Creamy Soft Scrub
- 2 cups baking soda
- ½ cup liquid castile soap
- 4 teaspoons vegetable glycerin (acts as a preservative)
- 5 drops antibacterial essential oil such as lavender, tea tree, or rosemary.
For exceptionally tough jobs spray with vinegar first—full strength or diluted, scented—let sit and follow with scrub.
The use of essential oils can be beneficial to your health. These products in their natural form promote overall well being for those who use them. Instead of using complicated man made chemicals, you use products what nature intended.
Not only can you maintain health but you can ward off illnesses like colds and flu just by inhaling lovely scents in your home, car, or office. The use of essential oils will improve your health and raise your energy level.
Aromatherapy can even relieve tension and calm nerves. By using these complex organic compounds you can feel better and look better.
In addition to boosting your head to toe health the use of aromatherapy allows you to avoid using other dangerous products. When you use natures recipes to combat everything from diabetes to heart ailments you free yourself from the side affects of synthetic medications.
If you still require prescription treatment you can use aromatherapy in conjunction with them. Be sure to check with your physician before you mix any chemicals or if you are pregnant or have an ongoing health condition.
If you are just beginning your journey into the world of aromatherapy the kit listed here is a great way to get started. It provides you with commonly used oils that can be used in many recipes.
You should take time to familiarize yourself with the oils that can be hazardous especially as they pertain to your health issues or concerns. Remember that no two people are the same so what is a non irritant to another person may not be so for you. Simple tests can help you determine whether you will be allergic to an oil.
As a novice to the field of aromatherapy you should also take note of safety precautions and hazardous oils. Some less scrupulous sellers, especially online, will still sell things that you should not use in aromatherapy. If you see something that looks suspect trust your research and avoid it.
Once you experience the benefits of essential oils you will wonder how you ever lived without them. Soon your home will be free of man made chemicals for cleaning and treating illnesses.
Do not underestimate the power of ridding your home of the scent of bleach and strong household cleaners. Imagine what taking those smells into your lungs does to your respiratory system. Now think of how it feels to breathe in fresh healthy air. This is what happens when you use essential oils to maintain a clean home. You and your whole family will be able to breathe easier and feel better. All of this by using natures essential oils through aromatherapy.
Aromatherapy is for you. It is meant to benefit your health and well being. All the tools you need are some high quality, natural oils and a few recipes. More important is the knowledge that you do not have to do harm to yourself to keep your body and home free of germs, bacteria, and negative energy.
So, find a health food store and start stocking up on oils that you like. Smell them all and see which invigorates you. Build a beginner kit and start healing yourself with essential oils. Once you do that your only job is to breathe.
This article is presented to you for informational purposes only and is not a substitution for any professional advice. The contents herein are based on the views and opinions of all associated contributors. The author and/or all associated contributors take no responsibility for any errors or omissions if such discrepancies exist within this article. The author and all other contributors accept no responsibility for any consequential actions taken, whether monetary, legal, or otherwise, by any and all readers of the materials provided. It is the reader’s sole responsibility to seek professional advice before taking any action on their part. Readers results will vary based on their skill level and individual perception of the contents herein, and thus no guarantees, monetarily or otherwise, can be made accurately. Therefore, no guarantees are made.